The Secrets of Lucifer

Chapter 4: The House of Alpin

 

 


The Sinclairs

 

Monasticism was introduced to Christianity primarily by the great Gnostic theologian and denounced heretic Origen, who was a staunch opponent of the Ophite sects, as well as of the Manichaean sect which later came to govern the Roman Catholic Church. Origen’s monastic views were spread through his school in Alexandria and later emerged in Europe through the religious views of the canonized 6th century hermit Benedict di Nursia. Benedict completed the most important book of precepts for monks living in community under the authority of an abbot, known as the Rule of St. Benedict.107 He was influenced by the mysterious Rule of the Master, the Rules of Pachomius and Augustine, and by Basil of Caesarea’s 4th century Ascetica which is still used by the Orthodox Church.108

The life of Benedict is known through Pope Gregory I who was deeply inspired by him. Gregory founded and joined a Benedictine monastery and became the first pope with a monastic background, elected in 590.109 His writings and monastic background set the standard for the future of not only the Papacy, but also the Catholic priesthood in general. He is one of only three popes to be called ‘the Great,’ and many of the monastic traditions are described as Gregorian due to his influence.110 He was also one of the first four men to be styled a doctor of the Church.111

Monasticism is basically synonymous with Gnosticism, as the ancient Gnostics like Origen all regarded Gnosticism as a way of life, rather than as an institution or belief system. For this reason it has always been unpopular within the Church’s hierarchy. (Despite its continuous existence in the Middle East, monasticism is still forbidden in Islamic cultures and expressly prohibited by the Qur’an.)112 However, Rome’s authority has always rested on its willingness to compromise with the religious societies outside its original sphere of influence; popes who have been at times unaware of the subversive nature of these groups, inspired by their piety, or even—as in the case of the Medici popes—complicit in their schemes, have allowed them into their domain, the only real stipulation being that they respect the authority of the Holy See.

The protection of the Church has given the various monastic orders the opportunity to practice their esotericism uninhibited by the Inquisition, with the exception of the Papal bull which temporarily banned the Society of Jesus on account of Weishaupt’s treachery. By then the Jesuits were far more powerful than the Papacy, and the Church was far too late to save itself. However, the Church has maintained enough power to quell dissention during the strong centralized reign of several popes. As long as it is able to keep the influence of the various monastic orders in check, there is nothing for the Church to fear except subversion of the Papacy itself, as all Catholics are obliged to submit to Papal authority, regardless of rank. Ultimately the Church’s undoing has been the result of its unwillingness to compromise, as evidenced by events such as Barbarossa’s invasion of Italy and the Reformation of Germany and England.

Sometimes the pope is a mere stooge representing a political party, as the office of the Papacy is extremely coveted. This was especially true at the end of the 12th century when the monastic orders based on the Rule of St. Benedict became the dominant force in ecumenical politics. Dominic founded the Dominican Order after being inspired by the ascetic piety of the Albigenses of southern France.113 Francesco di Assisi established the Franciscan Order after asking God for enlightenment.114 Later on the Jesuits sprung out of the influence of wealthy Illuminist families such as the Medicis and the Colonnas, and even the older Augustinian Order inadvertently helped Illuminism by producing Martin Luther.

One of the monastic movements to come out of the original Benedictine Order was the Cistercian Order, made famous by Bernard de Clairvaux, the most influential Catholic cleric of the Middle Ages.115 The Supreme Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem states that at least two of the original nine Templars were previously Cistercians, and that “Many would simply see this transfer as one that took place between the monastic and the military arm of the same order, for the Cistercians and the Knights Templar were so closely linked by ties of blood, patronage and shared objectives that many Templar scholars believe that they were two arms from the same body.”116

According to Guillaume de Tyre the Order was founded by a vassal of the Count of Champagne, a certain Hugh de Payen, acting in collaboration with André de Montbard, the uncle of Bernard of Clairvaux. In 1118, the two knights along with seven companions presented themselves to the younger brother of Godfroi de Bouillon who had accepted the title of King Baudoin I of Jerusalem. […] There is a secret Templar archive in the principality of Seborga in northern Italy which has recently been discovered containing documents that demand further study. It is claimed that St Bernard of Clairvaux founded a monastery there in 1113, to protect a ‘great secret’. This monastery under the direction of its abbot, Edouard, contained two monks who had joined the order with Bernard, two knights who took the names of Gondemar and Rosal on their profession as monks. One document claims that in February 1117 Bernard came to this monastery, released Gondemar and Rosal from their vows and then blessed these two monks and their seven companions, prior to their departure to Jerusalem. This departure was not immediate and did not take place until November 1118. The seven companions of the two ex-Cistercians are listed as follows: André de Montbard, Count Hugh I de Champagne, Hugh de Payen, Payen de Montdidier, Geoffroi de Sainte-Omer, Archambaud de St Amand and Geoffroi Bisol. The document records that St Bernard nominated Hugh de Payen as the first grand master of the Poor Militia of Christ and that Hugh de Payen was consecrated in this position by the Abbot Edouard of Seborga. Supreme Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem117

Bernard became the advisor of Pope Honorius II, wielding far more political power than the latter, a fact which undoubtedly contributed to Honorius sanctioning the order in 1128.118 The Templars had just finished their excavations in Palestine and had only recently returned to France. They did not stay, however, and instead went on to Scotland, because Hugh de Payens was supposedly kin to the Sinclair family through marriage. In truth, Catherine St. Clair was so called because her husband Hugh was a Sinclair himself, as there is no conceivable way that a woman in medieval Scotland would have maintained her maiden name after her marriage unless she happened to be married to a relative, which would make their marriage as kin all the more likely. In any case, Hugh and the rest of them were all Norman Scots by birth, contrary to popular legend.

Upon the Templars’ return to Scotland, King David I of the Scots is said to have granted the land of Balantrodoch to the order after allegedly meeting with Sir Hugh. David is also credited with bestowing the rank of knighthood to Henri de St. Clair.119 Of all the hereditary feudal titles in medieval Scotland, only Henri’s bloodine survived into the present day without a challenge, and of the original Templars, only his identity has not been obscured.

The name of St. Clair is an old one, and it comes from the Latin Sanctus Clarus meaning ‘holy light,’ in reference to “illumination.” There were multiple St. Clairs in France in the 9th and 10th centuries, but the general consensus among scholars is that the so-called “hermit of St. Clare” and first of the line of Sinclairs was Rollo, the Viking nobleman and first Duke of Normandy who converted to Christianity in 912.120 He is mentioned in the semi-historical Orkneyinga Saga, and the family of Viking earls in Orkney were called the Sinclairs of the Isles. A close study of the titles relevant to the Scottish throne will show that the Sinclairs of Orkney and of Pentland were the only families to escape the coup d’état of Robert I of Scotland, and that they merged with each other and with the Comyns before and during the crises of the 14th century. This is because they were the original noble family of part-Scottish, part-Norman and part-French ancestry whence all the others were descended.

Through Rollo were descended the dukes of Normandy and Anjou. Rollo’s grandson Richard I ‘the Fearless’ was the father of Richard II de Normandie and of Robert, Archbishop of Rouen. Richard was the grandfather of Guillaume ‘le Bastard’ who conquered England and sired the nobility of Europe. Robert married Herleva, Countess of Evereux, and became the ancestor of Fulk V ‘the Young’ de Anjou, who was arguably the most influential Templar of all time. Before joining the order and becoming King of Jerusalem, he passed his inheritance to his son Geoffrei V ‘the Fair’ de Anjou, and was thus the ancestor of the Plantagenet dynasty which became the most powerful family in Europe.121

Richard II was also the father of Mauger who inherited the Archbishopric of Rouen after Robert. Mauger’s sons Valderne and Hamon died in battle at Val-es-Dunes near Caen contesting their cousin William the Bastard’s succession as Duke of Normandy.122 Mauger’s other son Hubert fought on William’s side and was rewarded with lands after the conquest of Britain.123 Valderne’s son William ‘the Seemly’ was also killed in battle against William (now ‘the Conqueror’) when he defended Scotland on behalf of the queen consort St. Margaret, having fled to her court and followed her there all the way from Hungary.124 It was actually due to William’s bravery that his son Henri de St. Clair inherited Balantrodoch on behalf of the Templars.

William ‘the Seemly’ was fighting against William ‘the Conqueror’ who was annoyed that Malcolm III (Canmore) of Scotland had given refuge to the Saxon Princess, Margaret and to Edgar ‘the Atheling’ who was the rightful heir (in some eyes) to the English throne.

William ‘the Conqueror’ sent a great army under the command of the Duke of Gloucester to invade Scotland.

William ‘the Seemly’ St Clair had been given the task of defending the border against the possibility of an English attack. When the attack came, Malcolm reinforced the Sinclair forces with those commanded by the Earls of March and Monteith. During the ensuing battle William Sinclair dashed forward with his forces ‘to put the enemy out of order’.

The report goes on to say: “He was slain by a multitude of his enimnes but not before he made fall many in heaps down by his feet”.

The news of his death coming to the two other chieftains, March and Monteith, they fall ‘so boldly upon the enimie that they scarce left any alive.’

The King and Queen lamented this misfortune and gave William’s son, Henry Sinclair, the lands of Rosslyn ‘in free heritage’ (his father had held it in ‘life rent’); made him a knight and a captain of 600 men.

Henry outlived Malcolm but was equally respected by King David I of Scotland who gave him the lands of Cardain and the command of 8,000 men. He routed the English army at the Battle of Allerton (now in Yorkshire) thereby avenging the death of his father. Niven Sinclair125

 

 

The Comyns

 

The link established by the Sinclairs represents an unbroken succession between the tribe of Dan and the houses of Europe, traceable at least to Njord of the Swedes (b. 214) and the ancient kings of Finland. The most remarkable thing about the Sinclair family, other than its being the only one that did not lose power to the Stewarts through both its lines, is that it actually represents a direct line of succession from the original Templars to the royal houses of Europe as well as their own holdings. One of them is even said to have been the duke of Oldenburg at one time.126 It is possible that Robert I feared or revered the Sinclairs, or that he was even their puppet king, but whatever the case, it seems as though their authority over the Templars was something which Robert was not willing to challenge. Instead he used this authority to usurp the crown of Scotland, as he himself was one of them, though certainly not the patrilineal heir.

The Sinclairs may have been the only established family that Robert I was not willing to challenge in one way or another, but the Comyns were the one which he had to challenge in order to steal the throne of Scotland from David’s descendants. Sinclairs have held Rosslyn since the 11th century and they built Rosslyn Chapel, but the actual leader of the Scottish army at the Battle of Rosslyn which the chapel commemorates was John Comyn. Speaking of the Comyns, the 16th century chronicler Buchanan says “the power of this family has never been equaled in Scotland, either before or since.”127 What Buchanan probably did not know is that their power exceeded anything yet revealed to the public until the publication of the present book.

The name of Comyn is supposed to have come from a village called Comines (Komen in Dutch) in Flanders.128 This etymology, while probably accurate, assumes too much. Like every other family name in the 12th century in Scotland, it is probably either native to that country or else a title. Nevertheless, this etymology is just as likely, as it explains the association between the Flemish Knights Templar and the Sinclair family of Scotland.

The Comyn family emerged from the House of Alpín when Máel Coluim mac Cináeda died without leaving any sons to succeed him. His daughters respectively married Sigurd, a Norse earl of Orkney, and Crínán, a somewhat obscure hereditary lay abbot of Dunkeld and mormaer (king or duke) of Atholl. This latter union established the House of Dunkeld. Up until that point the dukes of Atholl were apparently not all that significant, but under the House of Dunkeld and the House of Stewart, control of the small territory symbolized the legal claim to the throne of Scotland and the seat of the Knights Templar, and consequently, of Freemasonry.

Crínán became the ruler of what had been the Kingdom of Alba while the Pictish kings of Moray fought over the throne of the Scots. He was killed in battle with Mac Bethad of Moray (Shakespeare’s MacBeth), along with his son and heir apparent Maldred. He was succeeded by his other son Duncan I, who met the same fate. Sovereignty over Moray represented a precarious position for the House of Dunkeld after Duncan’s death, and his widow was forced to take his sons into hiding. Two of them became kings over the Scots in their own right, and the other (Máel Muire or Malmore) became the Mormaerof Atholl.

As the youngest son of Duncan’s heir Malcolm III, David I of Scotland was the figurehead of a group of nobles which fled to the Sinclair court in Normandy to escape the dynastic crisis. (The families which ruled Scotland and Normandy were now both junior branches of the Norwegian family which ruled Orkney.) He returned to take the throne after 30 years of exile, in 1124, and brought back with him men who would become the chiefs of the most important families, such as the Bruces, Balliols, Comyns and Stewarts. This fact alone is conclusive proof that all of the families in Scotland which had claims to the throne in the 13th century and whose influence turned Scotland from a Gaelic culture to a French one were descended from the Sinclairs. There can be little doubt that each of them was a Knight Templar at some point, either initiated when the Templars came to Scotland, or because they themselves were the original Templars, having actually spent their exile in the Holy Land.129

Apart from being the liege lord of Hugh de Payens in France, Hugh de Champagne was also the first count of that region, ruling between 1093 and 1124 (the exact same period as the exile from Scotland), abdicating his territory to the order after their return. It is therefore apparent that the Norman-Pictish nobles were given the region of Flanders in compensation for their defeat by Mac Bethad, and that Hugh de Champagne was none other than David I himself. His vassal Hugh de Payens was also, therefore, David’s own uncle Malmore, or possibly his cousin Maddoc. The King, in effect, was a vassal of the Grand Master, whose claim to the throne was more legitimate than his own. This is why Atholl became the seat of the Templars, and why David gave the order so many liberties. The order did not even exist in Scotland prior to this episode; afterward, it created the feudal system which has endured since the 12th century, and wielded the whole power of the monarchy behind the scenes for many generations.

The position of Hugh de Champagne in this whole affair is curious and confusing in the extreme. There is a letter to him from the Bishop of Chartres dated 1114, congratulating him on his intention to join la Milice du Christ, which is another name for the Knights Templar. He certainly took up a form of lay associate membership of the order in 1124 and thereby created a bizarre anomaly in feudal terms, for by joining the Order and swearing obedience to its Grand Master Hugh de Payen he came under the direct control of a man who in the normal social order of things was his own vassal. Supreme Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem130

The list of nobles who emigrated with David I from the English (i.e., Franco-Norman) court in 1124 includes the name of William Comyn, a clergyman who was appointed Lord High Chancellor.131 As he was the first Comyn in Scotland and the first to bear the name, this suggests that the title was given by David, who is known to have established Scotland’s feudal system. The title of ‘justiciar’ which he was given, in Latin, would have been comus, which was used for dozens of separate offices held by Roman officials. If the name did not originate in Flanders, then it is also likely that it evolved from comus into Cominus or Comines. There were certainly members of the family that are known to have held Roman titles even after the family’s fall from grace, including one John Comyn, son of Alexander (who was another justiciar/grand master) and Constable (comus stabuli or ‘master of the stables’) of Scotland.

The name of David’s uncle (or cousin) Malmore (or Maddoc) of Atholl was simply the Gaelic name of William Comyn or Hugh de Payens, whose French and Latin names were used in the French-speaking Norman and Scottish courts.132 The French took precedence at some point because of David’s influence, whose 30 years in French-speaking territory began reflecting a new and heavily French influence on Scotland. Comyn’s son was also named William, known officially as Madeth Comes or Maddoc Comes.133 Unless the Flemish theory is correct, this title, originally given to his father, and because it is not French, is undoubtedly the origin of the family name of Comyn and was meant to apply specifically to the dukes of Atholl or earls of Buchan, being designated by this time as the grand masters of the Templars through their patrilineal descent from Hugh de Payens and the Sinclairs. This makes sense because the title of duke which was exclusive to Atholl in Scotland has a militaristic origin (from the Latin dux bellorum or ‘duke of war’), while ‘earl’ comes from the Scandinavian jarlr, meaning ‘chieftain.’134

Atholl became permanently removed from the rest of the kingdom when William’s grandson Harald Maddadson became Earl of Orkney in 1134. Harald was a notorious enemy of the Scots, but also the legitimate heir of Atholl, which was then held in contention between his Galwegian allies, with whom his offspring were married, and by his younger brother William who acquired Buchan by marriage. Either Harald’s son Henry Comyn (a.k.a. Heinrik Haraldsson of Orkney) was deposed, or else he gave up his inheritance in favor of Orkney, and the title of Atholl fell to his daughters in succession. The dukedom was administered by Isabella’s Galwegian retainers until her son Patrick of Galloway was old enough to take over, but he was murdered at a young age.135 The title then fell to his aunt Forblaith who married the Templar David de Hastings. From this point on, the royal houses’ claims to Atholl were probably based on an issue of hereditary nobility versus what the knights themselves apparently accepted.

When Robert I gained the throne, the Templars were outlawed and he refused to acknowledge David de Hastings’ line. As evidence that Robert was a Templar pretender, there were three successive generations of dukes in Atholl named David de Strathbogie who were not recognized in Scotland but were in England. (Technically, the Plantagenets still had the rightful claim to the Scottish throne, but they lacked the capacity to seize it. They recognized that Scotland could only be ruled by a Scot and therefore tried to install their puppet Edward Balliol instead.) The Scottish kings also each defiantly created a new title to contend with the one actually physically held by the Templars, each act a bold initiative considering their rule was never close to being stable. William Douglas was given the title in 1353 but resigned in favor of Robert Stewart (King Robert II of Scots) who was the fourth creation.

To give some idea of how coveted and autonomous this seemingly insignificant title may have once been, the Duke of Atholl commands the only state-sanctioned private army in Europe.136 The traditional residence of the dukes is Blair Castle which is said to have been commissioned by John Comyn while he was crusading in the Holy Land.137 John was the legitimate heir of the Scottish throne through both his parents, endorsed by the reigning king John Balliol who was also his uncle, and he even married the daughter of the Earl of Fife whose hereditary right it was to coronate the new king. As the great leader and hero of the Scottish Wars of Independence, he was also the common people’s uncontested choice. The battles fought by the Sinclairs and the Comyns were written out of conventional Scottish history either by Robert the Bruce, because they were rivals to the throne which he coveted, or by the actual order itself in order to conceal their history from the public of Christendom, which considered them formally disbanded and excommunicated.

The Bruce had ample cause to wage a private war against the Comyns, as there were many claimants to the throne and it was apparent to everyone that John ‘the Red’ Comyn was the frontrunner. It was only a matter of time before his rule would be recognized by King Edward himself. In order to secure the throne for himself, the Bruce summoned Comyn to a secret parley in 1306. The Bruce arranged the meeting at Greyfriars Church in Dumfries as a guarantee of his good intentions, because it was inconceivable that a Catholic noble would violate a truce in a church, but the truce actually only lasted long enough for the usurper to stab him in cold blood.138 The murder did give him the initiative and enable his coup, but it did little to help his standing among the other nobles, especially the King of England, and he treated his excommunication with all the contempt of a true Templar grand master.139

 

The Comyns responded to John’s assassination, but were defeated by Robert in 1307, just a few months before the Papal bull which ended the Templars’ glory was issued.140 The timing of the bull seems to indicate that the Church was wary of the implications of a power struggle within the order, which by then had already long since surpassed its own influence. Worse yet, the knights had now become united under a man who displayed open contempt for the Papacy, the English whom the Papacy loved, and even the sanctity of a parley arranged in a church. Whether the Papacy knew anything else about what was going on in secrecy is debatable, as at least some of the evidence against them seems to have been fabricated. Pope Clement V was not even convinced of the treachery of the group as a whole until he witnessed the confessions of many of its members which (unlike earlier confessions) were not induced by torture.

Owing to the fact that these events have been almost entirely excluded from the many hundreds of years of influence of the Bruce’s propagandists, it is not clear whether the Templars withdrew their support from him or whether they were divided between the Bruces and the Comyns, but legend and common sense both indicate that they were responsible for the Scots’ otherwise inexplicable victory over the English at Bannockburn in 1314, a battle which simply could not be left out of the historical record, considering that his claim to the throne depended on his having been there. (He was conspicuously absent from every other battle, and was regarded by all as a treacherous coward.) The Templars still sided with Robert at Bannockburn, so it is likely that his feud with the Comyns was simply the culmination of a power struggle within the order which was made more dire by affairs on the continent, and that it was supported because the other nobles wanted to exact revenge on the Comyns for the murders of their Galwegian masters. In all probability, each major event had been put into motion by a Templar conspiracy.

Robert probably realized more than any other contender that the future of the secret society which was to become Freemasonry depended on its ability to achieve an independent national rule in Scotland, under the rule of the descendants of Hugh de Payens (due to the transmission of pontifical powers allegedly stemming from the Johannites in direct succession from King Solomon), whereas the reigning king (John Balliol) was a stooge of England. Contrary to popular opinion, Jacques de Molay was not Grand Master of the Templars, but only Grand Master of the Templars in France. In the same way, different nations have always had their own Masonic grand masters of the grand lodges within their borders. The reason the order survived in Scotland but not in France is that the King of Scotland was subordinate to the Grand Master in his country (in theory, that is, but in practice Robert upset this system) through the feudal tradition of primogenitur, while King of France was not. (Technically, the King of France was subordinate to the Grand Master in Scotland, a claim which, if invoked, certainly would not have been recognized, just as the King of England was technically a vassal of the King of France and could not have cared less.) Robert I even evidently claimed to be the legitimate Grand Master of all Templars everywhere, perhaps due to the fact that the order legally (and in many ways, practically) ceased to exist outside of Scotland when it was disbanded by the Papacy. That is, of course, unless the fact that Bannockburn was fought in June 1314, three months after Jacques de Molay was burned—the same amount of time as it would have taken the English to muster an army and mount an invasion—is simply a “coincidence” or an “accident.”

 

 

The Stewarts

 

 The Stewarts were one of the original Templar families and were descended from Alan, Steward of Dol-de-Bretagne, who died during the First Crusade. His possessions passed to his brother Flaald, and then to Alan fitz Flaald. Walter fitz Alan accompanied David I to Scotland, where he was given the hereditary title High Steward and became a common ancestor of each of the noble families. The second Alan fitz Walter defeated Somerled in 1164.141 He also became a major benefactor of the Templars after they were driven out of Palestine in 1189, and went back with the Third Crusade in 1191. By the time Robert I usurped the throne a century later, all the claimants had been descendants of Alan fitz Walter.

Like the Comyns and all the other claimants, the Bruces’ influence was an extension of the Templars’ sovereignty stemming from the reign of David I, who had married into the Stewart line in order to consolidate his power. (This shows not only the importance of the Stewart family in Scotland prior to the Templars’ arrival, and that the Templars wanted to keep continuity between the old Pictish feudal system and the new French one, but also that David’s offspring were all Stewarts by birth.) Robert VI of Annandale fought with Adam de Kilconcath who had married into the family of Carrick and died in battle during the Eighth Crusade. Robert went home to deliver the news to Adam’s Stewart wife, and then married her to take possession of her lands.142 Robert I was one of the products of this union. Most of the power which the Bruces obtained over the other earls was through Robert’s sisters, and through his daughter Margaret.

Princess Margaret married back into the Stewart line but spent her adolescence in confinement (on account of potential retaliations by the numerous enemies which her father had bequeathed her) and died delivering Robert II by Caesarian. Robert I’s only son David II enjoyed a long reign but was plagued by demands far exceeding his abilities and failed to produce an heir. To make matters worse, many of his nobles were killed at the Battle of Halidon Hill, in which the English retaliated for the Templars’ victories a generation earlier, while he was still a boy. Halidon Hill was a massacre—the most decisive “battle” of the Middle Ages except perhaps the debacle at Agincourt; 4500 Scots perished but only 14 Englishmen were killed.143 Among the casualties was Hugh de Ross, a brother-in-law of Robert I and father-in-law of Robert II.

The marriage of Margaret Bruce to Walter Stewart and the succession of their son Robert II to the throne finally stabilized the Bruces’ rule. (Along with being a direct descendant of David I, Walter Stewart was one of only a few notable Comyns left. His mother was Cecilia de Dunbar, daughter of Margaret Comyn. Without this marriage, and the succession of Robert II in particular, any allegiances which any of the other nobles still maintained for the Comyns would have represented a liability to the Bruces.) However, Robert took a mistress and produced two separate lines which then proceeded to compete with each other for the throne. The younger and more legitimate claimant was Walter Stewart, who acquired Atholl by means of treachery. The elder John Stewart emerged as the next king, adopting the name of Robert III, apparently in an attempt to get his continuity and legitimacy recognized. (He had a brother who was actually named Robert, and who attempted to seize the throne by murdering his heirs.) However, the king was perpetually sick, the fact of which worked to the advantage of his treacherous brothers.

When Robert III came to the throne, the title of Atholl (i.e., Grand Master) was passed to his son David Stewart as Duke of Rothesay, a new title given in perpetuity to the crown prince or heir apparent. However, the title did nothing to establish his rule. Rothesay was imprisoned at Falkland Palace and died in or around 1402 at the hands of his own uncle Robert, then already Regent and 1st Duke of Albany.144 Albany assumed the title of Atholl for the years which he had his nephew imprisoned. Whether it was even still meaningful by this time is subject to speculation, but it was certainly still coveted enough to cause Albany to kill his nephew over it.

Robert III’s power was already eclipsed by his brother, and it was obvious at this point that Albany was going to kill his other son James as soon as he had the chance. James was sent to France for his safety, but was captured by the English. Robert allegedly died when he heard the news, but more likely he was assassinated by his brother. He was succeeded by James in exile, and Albany was again left as Regent (i.e., de facto King), with Buchan, Fife and Menteith as his personal possessions, having lost Atholl to Walter when Robert died. Walter also accumulated Strathearn in 1427 and gained back Caithness in 1431 after his son died without an heir.145 After procuring the release of his own son Murdoch and leaving James in the custody of the English, Albany died in 1420, and Murdoch became the new Albany.

Walter moved quickly to extend his influence by acquiring the release of James and orchestrating Albany’s downfall. When James returned in 1424, he had Albany’s whole family killed at Walter’s behest. James was now the only obstacle to the throne, and Walter also had him murdered in 1437. However, the conspirators were arrested and put to the most brutal form of justice available in medieval Europe. Walter’s public torture lasted no less than three days before his execution, at which time the Templars forfeited all of their remaining titles.146

The next creation of Atholl was given to John Stewart of Balveny, the oldest son of Joan Beaufort, the widowed consort of James. (His brother was also made a new creation of Buchan, which had been one of the two hereditary possessions of the Comyn family.) John was given the task of suppressing the rebellion caused by James II’s purge of the Black Douglas family which had been murdered in the aftermath of Walter Stewart’s conspiracy. James’ descendant James VI passed the title of Atholl to the Murray clan in 1606 where it has remained ever since, although it has not been continuous and has not retained its prominence over the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, which is now dominated by the German Mountbatten-Windsor royal family.

James VI advanced the religion of Luciferianism as it was brought to Europe by the Templars and continued by the upper ranks of the Scottish Freemasons. This was all the more meaningful when he ascended to the throne of England, Ireland and Wales as James I. Ironically, Henry VIII of England was afraid that his throne would go to a Scot, so he expressly excluded James’ grandmother Margaret Tudor and her descendants from his will.147 Despite this, James still became the leading contender after Mary I’s execution, as he was her only child and Elizabeth had none. Thus the crowns of England and Scotland were merged in 1603, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain was formed in 1707.148

Compared to other learned men of his age, James was a brilliant scholar. His efforts consisted mostly of arguments for the divine right of kings and absolute monarchy, which had not previously taken form outside the bounds of what was now the 600-year secret tradition of the order.149 (This is essentially what caused the English Civil War during the reign of his son and successor Charles I.) He was the first monarch to encourage the transition from Aristotelianism to modern Illuminism, and personally solicited Francis Bacon to work to this end. (Technically, Bacon had already been working on it for several decades before James’ succession, but the English colonization of North America, which was Bacon’s primary concern, did not begin until his reign.) Bacon’s book The Advancement of Learning is dedicated to him.150 James even took to writing himself, and although he is often viewed as a Christian apologist, this is due mostly to his commissioning the first “accepted” translation of the Bible into English, which itself was done in spite of the Catholic Church and effectively served to spread the Illuminism of John Calvin both in Britain and in the New World.

In truth, James was neither a Christian nor an apologist, and his stance on religion was an entirely political affair. He seems to have enjoyed his position as the head of the Church of England because it gave him the same authority over his own people as the Roman pontiff had over his, and made sure that all the pagan customs of the Romans and the English alike were left intact. The effect his discourses and his infamous witchhunts had was to increase awareness both of witchcraft and of Satanism, while forever staining the reputation of the supposedly Protestant version of Christianity by treating witches with as little compassion as Catholics are known for. In Daemonologie (1597), he provides descriptions of “Sorcerie and Witch-craft in Speciall” and “all these kindes of Spirites that troubles men or wo-men,” and he argues “that these unlawfull artes of this sort (in genere), have bene and may be put in practise.”151

 

 

 

 


 


107-108
“Rule of St Benedict,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rule_of_St_Benedict.

As far as I can tell, the Rule of the Master was either written by Origen, or by one of the Desert Fathers. Theoretically, any one of them would have been at least heavily influenced by Origen. Also a possibility is that it was taken from an unknown source used by the ancient Nazarites, thereby linking it to Yahshuah or one of his peers. In any case, I have not even been able to find a copy of this document, though I suppose it must have been preserved by Luke Eberle’s The Rule of the Master = Regula Magistri (An English Translation), Cistercian Publications, Kalamazoo (1977). Considering that it survived the 4th century purge and made it into the hands of Benedict, it would seem the Athanasians’ and, later, the Jesuits’ attempts to cover up the Gnostic roots of Christian monasticism extend through this document. The anonymous title is suggestive of a Luciferian and/or proto-Jesuit tradition which is suggestive of Mandaean origins, much like Thomas Á Kempis’ more influential The Imitation of Christ.

109 “Pope Gregory I,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Gregory_I.

110 “Pope John Paul II,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_John_Paul_II.

Apart from the others, Pope John Paul II is also called ‘the Great,’ but only informally. There are no set criteria for the title, and it passes into common usage by means of popular consent. Given enough time, John Paul II will surely be recognized by the Church as ‘the Great.’

111 “Doctor of the Church,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doctor_of_the_Church.

112 “Monasticism,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monasticism.

113 “Dominican Order,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dominican_Order.

Wikipedia revised the article after this was written to say that Dominic’s true purpose was to convert the Albigenses. I agree with the original assertion that he found inspiration in them, as they influenced him and he clearly did not influence them at all. If the Dominican Order was established to convert the Albigenses, then it failed utterly and should have no place in history.

114 “Francis of Assisi,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_of_Assisi.

115 The name of Clairvaux was applied to St. Bernard because he founded the Cistercian abbey at Clairvaux. The name is thought to have come from the Old French cler (‘clear’) and valee (‘valley’), or the Latin clara (‘bright’) and valles (‘valley’). This is possible, considering that the followers of Peter Waldo were called Vallenses, and some scholars think his name was actually derived from the name of the group instead of vice-versa. However, a more appropriate English rendering for Waldenses is Illuminists, which I believe is precisely what was meant by the Old French term applied to them, through a crude and rather ignorant etymology. Peter ‘the Illuminist’ Waldo was just one of Bernard’s second-generation followers, not at all unlike the Albigenses. What Catholic scholars have failed to recognize is that Bernard is the common source of all of the 12th century heresies, probably due as much to the affection which Catholics have for their saints as to their ignorance of medieval history. A more likely etymology for Clairvaux is claire and voyance (‘seeing’), whence is derived the word clairvoyance. I believe the word was a reference to a specific sect of Illuminists centered in Normandy, and was derived from the Latin claro (‘to illuminate’) and probably also vox (‘voice’). A popular Latin idiom is vox used in conjunction with vocis, rendering a meaning of power or authority. A modern English equivalent of this idiom is ‘voice of the people.’ Clairvaux may have an approximate meaning of something like ‘voice of Lucifer,’ or even ‘valley of the Illuminati,’ although its meaning would have been delicately hidden so as to not be understood by contemporary Catholics. Considering the close relationship between Bernard, the Templars and the Sinclairs, I am certain that the name of Clairvaux is also closely related to the name of Sinclair, which would put an emphasis on the word cler. Thus the name of Sinclair would have derived from the 10th century ruling family of Scandinavians in Normandy and Flanders, associating them with medieval Luciferianism, presented to the public as the Cistercian Order and the first crusaders upon the exile of the House of Dunkeld from Scotland in the late 11th century, and as the Knights Templar a few decades later. There was nothing original about St. Bernard or his ideas.

116-117 “History of the Knights Templar,” OSMTH, http://www.ordotempli.org/history_of_the_knights_templar.htm (expired).

118 “Bernard of Clairvaux,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernard_of_Clairvaux.

119 David I was also a benefactor of the Cistercians, having built some of their most important monasteries, and the first ones in Scotland. Melrose Abbey (where David’s stepson was made an abbot) is the place where Robert I’s heart was interred after the Templars failed to bring it to Jerusalem. Despite the fact that the order didn’t even exist until 1098, there were some 500 Cistercian monasteries in Europe by the end of the 12th century, owing completely to the financial success of the Templars and the influence of Bernard, a blood relative of David. The Templars themselves are the only religious organization in European history to experience an equivalent growth.

120 “The Hermit Saint Clair,” Quarterman Family History Project, http://sinclair.quarterman.org/who/hermit/index.html.

121 http://www.ordotempli.org/history_of_the_knights_templar.htm (expired).

“At about the time the excavations were near completion, Count Fulk of Anjou sped with all haste to Jerusalem where he took the oath of allegiance to the new order. He immediately granted the order an annuity of thirty Angevin livres before returning to Anjou. When one considers that the vast majority of knights joining the order stayed within its ranks for their lifetime, this action by Fulk of Anjou is a trifle strange. His apparent freedom of manoeuvre, despite his oath of allegiance to the Order of the Knights Templar can be explained by the fact that Fulk was not only the Count of Anjou and a member of the Templar Order but was married to the sister of the King of Jerusalem who died childless, thus Fulk himself later became the King of Jerusalem.”

122-123 “Mauger of St. Claire Archbishop of Rouen,” Martin Romano Garcia, http://www.martin.romano.org/ps08/ps08_261.htm.

124-125 Niven Sinclair, “William ‘the Seemly’ Sinclair, First Baron of Roslin,” http://sinclair.quarterman.org/who/seemly.html.

126 “600th Celebration News,” Prince Henry Project Committee, http://sinclair.quarterman.org/600/9805.html.

127 “Historic Earls and Earldoms of Scotland,” Electric Scotland, http://www.electricscotland.com/webclans/earldoms/chapter2s1.htm.

128 “Clan Cumming,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clan_Cumming.

129 I believe this to be the case. I have investigated each known member of David’s entourage, and the common Templar association is the only unifying characteristic of each of these families. Why else would the Templars have come to France after spending 30 years in the Holy Land, and then simply relocate to Scotland? Why else would Hugh de Payens be affiliated with the Sinclairs when there is not even a record of his alleged marriage to the anonymous Catherine St. Clair? Why else would there be no documentation from the rather extensive period of their exile, when they represented nearly all the power in Scotland when they returned? Surely some biographer would have recorded their exploits for future generations, especially during this period of heraldry and high chivalry. Why else would the individual Templars have been so old when the order was sanctioned, and this after they supposedly did not admit any new members? In other words, without fresh young knights, it would have been impossible for them to sustain a military order of any kind. (They actually did initiate their own sons.) Having been exiled from their own country, their participation in the First Crusade would have been expected, and possibly even mandatory. I actually believe that they were the ones responsible for preaching the crusade, or at the very least for the Cistercian Order (if not both). It seems, then, that David was a French king in every way, having been blessed by successive Norman dukes, who were actually his relatives. Although the title Count of Champagne was created specifically for him, the Normans had nothing to lose by allowing him to stay in Normandy, as he was actually made Prince of Cumbria. Therefore, his time was spent conquering Northumbria and Strathclyde for the Sinclairs of Normandy, as their own invasions had failed. The break between Scotland and England did not happen until David and has kinsman Stephen of England both died in 1154, at which point Henry II of the House of Anjou replaced the Flemish/Norman line. I have also found a substantial amount of evidence to suggest that the same Sinclair nobles in Scotland were known by hereditary Norse-Gaelic titles dating back to the original dynasty created by Rollo. These include the names of a Gilla Coemgáin, multiple Gilla Brigtes, multiple Gilla Crísts, a Gilla Mícheíl and a Gilla Chlerig, etc. This common practice shows that there was some significance behind the choosing of names (all are ‘devotees’ of saints) among the different earls, even before the period of French influence. Therefore, it is not the French who influenced Scotland, but the Norwegians who influenced both. (Rollo and his elder brother Einar were both born in Norway. Conquests was their only opportunity, as they lacked patrilineal inheritance in their homeland. Their father was especially happy to see Einar leave, and told him not to come back, as he was “ugly” and the son of a slave.) Similarly, the fathers of Malbride of Moray and Gilla Chlerig of Mar were both named Ruaidrí, which suggests that the separate claims to the Kingdom of Alba and the Kingdom of Moray in the 11th century were made by Gaelic families with common origins far later than has been realized by historians. Assuming this, the reign of Malbride’s (Máel Brigti’s) nephew Mac Bethad of Moray represents a break in the dynastic rule of Rollo’s offspring, and also explains why the power of Moray rivaled and temporarily overshadowed that of Alba. Mac Bethad married his cousin’s wife and died without leaving an heir, so Moray (and therefore Scotland) passed to his son-in-law Lulach, who was assassinated and succeeded by Malcolm (Máel Coluim) of Alba. Malise (Máel Ísu) also became the hereditary name of the Orkney jarlarnir (earls), who we already know to be Norse-Gaelic Sinclairs, by which claim the Scottish Sinclairs were given Orkney in free heritage by the Norwegian king. It therefore stands to reason that the House of Alpín had even closer ties with their Danish cousins than their common pedigree. The idea that both nations’ sovereigns knew of their true origins accounts for the sudden rise of the Teutonic Order preceding the Enlightenment, even if the Norse did not catch on until their Gaelic cousins informed them. When they figured it out is not important, so long as the first generation represented by Einar and Rollo knew. On the other hand, they had always believed that their race was descended from the Frost Giants, an idea which greatly contributed to the acceptance of Aryanism within Nordic culture in the 20th century. Therefore I believe that Nordicism is very ancient and sinister, even though it was transmuted through relatively harmless oral traditions.

130 http://www.ordotempli.org/history_of_the_knights_templar.htm (expired).

131 “Famous Scots - King David I (1084-1153),” Rampant Scotland, http://www.rampantscotland.com/famous/blfamdavid1.htm.

The clan itself holds to the tradition that William had an ancestor named Robert who came to England with William the Conqueror, and that this is why the name originated in Flanders. However, this does not address the issue of why William came to Scotland with David I with more power and prestige than the king himself. The clan’s history is not entirely flawed; it simply needs to be revised, as it has been in this context. See endnote 132. William Comyn’s association with the Templars is further asserted by the fact that his great-grandson William founded the Cistercian abbey at Deer in Buchan.

132 My reasons for saying this are too numerous to list here and include information already presented. Unfortunately, they are also extremely complex, and therefore difficult to articulate. Essentially, the major clues are that 1) the genealogies line up almost perfectly; 2) the time periods in which the individuals lived and were in exile correspond perfectly; 3) Malmore and Richard Comyn are both listed in confusing pedigrees as having married Hextilda of Tynedale, daughter of Uchtred and Beatrice; 4) the Gaelic line of Malmore is lost for no apparent reason, despite being an important royal line; 5) Malmore inherited Atholl as his sole possession while his brothers each inherited the throne of Scotland, and Atholl was the seat of the Comyns for many generations; 6) Richard Comyn had a grandson (possibly son) named Henry who was not a part of the family’s succession, but Harald Maddadson (who was born and raised in Atholl) also fathered a Heinrik who became Earl of Orkney after Harald, and of Caithness, which was Matad’s other known possession; 7) Henry’s uncle (possibly brother) William also had a descendant who married into the Orkney line, which indicates that the strong family connection to the old Sinclairs was kept over many generations, as he was actually a famous enemy of Orkney; 8) there is no other satisfactory reason why Atholl was the seat of the Templars, or why attempts were made to preserve it with knights instead of nobility, or why its dukes were recognized by England but not by Scotland. I have other reasons as well, many of which are annotated in The Templar Bloodlines, but to my knowledge there exists no other adequate explanation for the Comyns’ rise or fall from power. However, I wouldn’t be surprised to learn that some other chronicler has come to the same conclusions without my knowledge.

133 “Matad of Atholl,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matad_of_Atholl.

134 Ever since the dukes of Normandy opted to take on the more prestigious title of king in England and Ireland, the title of duke in the United Kingdom has been reserved for the men who have inherited it as a Masonic title. For example, Prince Edward is Duke (as opposed to Earl) of Kent and Strathearn, indicating that he is Grand Master of the Grand United Lodge (for both England and Scotland), and that the title of Grand Master of the Templars (in Scotland) has passed from Atholl (now an earldom) to Strathearn (formerly an earldom). Likewise, Prince Arthur was Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, indicating that Connaught was the seat of the order in Ireland, as Strathearn was and is in Scotland. This shows that the ceremonial titles of the grand masters of the respective lodges are still considered to be militaristic in nature. Even after reaching his nineties, Prince Arthur still made formal appearances to lead the British forces during World War Two, over two decades after his official retirement. The general public considers ‘duke’ and ‘earl’ to be synonyms, but they obviously are not (at least not in the British Peerage) and do not even have the same origins. That’s why I have included this explanation here. This interpretation is helpful for a correct understanding of why Walter Stewart was simultaneously Duke of Atholl and Earl of Strathearn and Caithness, and why David Stewart was Duke of Rothesay, and why Robert Stewart was Duke of Albany. These titles were created for specific militaristic or ceremonial purposes, not inherited like the others. In all other cases where the Gaelic or Scandanavian titles apply, the title of mormaer or jarlr is appropriate before the Franco-Norman influence. I have tried to be consistent with these designations.

135 “Padraig, Earl of Atholl,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Padraig%2C_Earl_of_Atholl.

The information provided by Wikipedia when I began researching the life of Patrick of Atholl has been lost to subsequent revisions. It also certainly merits an explanation. Patrick was the son of Alan Durward, who came to Atholl with his father Thomas de Galloway (a.k.a. Thomas de Lundin, Thomas Durward) after the latter led a rebellion against the monarchy. Thomas became a retainer for Isabella, and until only very recently, history had not recorded the fact that Isabella wedded Alan and that Patrick was Alan’s son. This is why he has been called Patrick de Galloway even though he was not from Galloway, nor held its title. The murder of Patrick and Isabella’s retainers was undoubtedly the result of some kind of power struggle over the dukedom, which I have adequately detailed in The Templar Bloodlines.

136 “Duke of Atholl,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duke_of_Atholl.

137 “Blair Castle,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blair_Castle.

138 “John ‘the Red’ Comyn,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_%22the_Red%22_Comyn.

139 “Robert the Bruce, King of Scots,” Electric Scotland, http://www.electricscotland.com/history/bruce/part6.htm.

“Robert listened to the message delivered by [the bishop of Corbeil and Master Aumery] with attention, and heard read the open letters from the Pope; but when those sealed and addressed ‘Robert Bruce, governer of Scotland,’ were produced, he finally declined receiving them. ‘Among my barons,’ said he, ‘there are many of the name of Robert Bruce, who share in the government of Scotland. These letters may possibly be addressed to one of them; but they are not addressed to me, who am king of Scotland.’ The messengers attempted to apologise for this omission, by saying, that ‘the holy church was not wont, during the dependence of a controversy, to say or do aught which might prejudice the claims of either contending party.’ ‘Since then,’ replied the king, ‘my spiritual father and my holy mother would not prejudice the cause of my adversary by bestowing on me the title of king during the dependence of the controversy, they ought not to have prejudiced my cause by withdrawing that title from me. It seems that my parents are partial to theft English son. Had you,’ added he, with resolute but calm dignity, ‘presumed to present letters with such an address to any other sovereign prince, you might, perhaps, have been answered more harshly but I reverence you as the messengers of the holy see.’”

140 “Battle of Glen Trool,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Glen_Trool.

141 Somerled was a king of the Hebrides who invaded mainland Scotland and the Isle of Man when their respective kings both died in 1154. Very little is known about him. He probably wanted to unite the Scots under a kind of Scandinavian heritage, based on the synchronizing of the Norse and Gaelic cultures which happened in the lands under his rule. This Norse-Gaelic culture spread along the western shores of the mainland and became the dominant culture of the Highlands, especially following the devastations of William Comyn and Robert I. The Norse lost control of the Inner Hebrides after Somerled’s failed invasion, and the Outer Hebrides were given to Scotland in 1266.

142 “Marjorie, Countess of Carrick,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marjorie%2C_Countess_of_Carrick.

143 “Battle of Halidon Hill,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Halidon_Hill.

144 “David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Stewart%2C_Duke_of_Rothesay.

When I originally accessed this article, it said that Rothesay died in 1406. I do not know which date is more reliable. He could not have lived beyond 1406, as that was the year that his brother James I succeeded Robert III.

145 The titles of Strathearn and Menteith were the other titles in Perth besides Atholl and Angus during the 12th century. They seem to have been created at the time of the Templars’ flight from the Holy Land in 1189, and it is probable that they had already been given to the Templar families during the reign of David I. The larger area between them was called Albany, which was formally made a Templar possession in 1398. Strathearn passed to the monarchy in 1371, and Menteith belonged to the Stewart family. Caithness was also forfeited in 1335 as a result of the revolt against David II.

146 “Walter Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Stewart%2C_1st_Earl_of_Atholl.

147 “James I of England,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_I_of_England.

148 “List of monarchs of Scotland,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_monarchs_of_Scotland.

149 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_I_of_England.

150 “Francis Bacon,” Oregon State University, http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl302/philosophers/bacon.html.

151 James Stewart, Daemonologie, http://www.general-anaesthesia.com/demonologie/index.html.

There has never been a clear distinction between the doctrines and ecclesiastical governments of the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England in the minds of most Protestant Christians, yet Catholics tend to regard the latter as Protestant, as it is still a Christian institution from the Reformation, but outside their domain.